Surgical instruments can be generally divided into five classes by function. These classes are:
1) Cutting instruments and dissecting: scalpels, scissors, saws.
2) Grasping or holding instruments: smooth [anatomical] and toothed [surgical] forceps, towel clamps, vascular clamps, and organ holders.
3) Haemostatic instruments: Kocher’s and Billroth’s clamps, hemostatic “mosquito” forceps, atraumatic hemostatic forceps, Deschamp’s needle, Höpfner’s hemostatic forceps.
4) Retractors:Farabef’s C-shaped laminar hook, blunt-toothed hook, sharp-toothed hook, grooved probe, tamp forceps.
5) tissue unifying instruments and materials: needle holders, surgical needles, staplers, clips, adhesive tapes.